History is the discovery, collection, organization, analysis, and presentation of information about past events. History can also mean a continuous, typically chronological record of important or public events or of a particular trend or institution. Scholars who write about history are called historians. It is a field of knowledge which uses a narrative to examine and analyse the sequence of events, and it sometimes attempts to objectively investigate the patterns of cause and effect that determine events. Historians debate the nature of history and its usefulness. This includes discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present. The stories common to a particular culture but not supported by external sources (such as the legends surrounding King Arthur) are usually classified as cultural heritage rather than as the "disinterested investigation" needed by the discipline of history. Events of the past prior to written record are considered prehistory.
Amongst scholars, fifth century BC Greek historian Herodotus is considered to be the "father of history"; the methods of Herodotus along with his contemporary Thucydides form the foundations for the modern study of history. Their influence (along with other historical traditions in other parts of their world) has spawned many different interpretations of the nature of history which has developed over the centuries and are continuing to change. The modern study of history has many different fields, including those that focus on certain regions and those that focus on certain topical or thematic elements of historical investigation. Often, history is taught as part of primary and secondary education, and the academic study of history is a major discipline in university studies.
The history of the U.S. state of Minnesota
is shaped by its original Native American
residents, European exploration and settlement
, and the emergence of industries made possible by the state's natural resources. Minnesota
achieved prominence through fur trading, logging, and farming, and later through railroads, and iron mining. While those industries remain important, the state's economy is now driven by banking, computers, and health care.
The earliest known settlers followed herds of large game to the region during the last glacial period. They preceded the Anishinaabe, the Dakota, and other Native American inhabitants. Fur traders from France arrived during the 17th century. Europeans, moving west during the 19th century, drove out most of the Native Americans. Fort Snelling, built to protect United States territorial interests, brought early settlers to the area. Early settlers used Saint Anthony Falls for powering sawmills in the area that became Minneapolis, while others settled downriver in the area that became Saint Paul.
Minnesota became a part of the United States as Minnesota Territory in 1849, and became the 32nd U.S. state on May 11, 1858. After the upheaval of the American Civil War and the Dakota War of 1862, the state's economy started to develop when natural resources were tapped for logging and farming. Railroads attracted immigrants, established the farm economy, and brought goods to market. The power provided by Saint Anthony Falls spurred the growth of Minneapolis, and the innovative milling methods gave it the title of the "milling capital of the world."
(November 2, 1734 [O.S.
October 22] – September 26, 1820) was an American pioneer
, and frontiersman
exploits made him one of the first folk heroes
of the United States
. Boone is most famous for his exploration and settlement of what is now the Commonwealth of Kentucky
, which was then beyond the western borders of the settled part of the Thirteen Colonies
. This region legally belonged to both the Commonwealth of Virginia
and to the American Indian Tribes
at the time. Despite some resistance from American Indian tribes such as the Shawnee
, in 1775 Boone blazed his Wilderness Road
through the Cumberland Gap
in the Appalachian Mountains
from North Carolina
into Kentucky. There he founded the village of Boonesborough, Kentucky
, one of the first English-speaking settlements west of the Appalachians. Before the end of the 18th century, more than 200,000 European people migrated to Kentucky/Virginia by following the route marked by Boone.
Boone was a militia officer during the Revolutionary War (1775–82), which in Kentucky was fought primarily between the European settlers and the British-aided Native Americans. Boone was captured by Shawnee warriors in 1778, who after a while adopted him into their tribe. Later, he left the Indians and returned to Boonesborough to help defend the European settlements in Kentucky/Virginia.
Boone was elected to the first of his three terms in the Virginia General Assembly during the Revolutionary War, and fought in the Battle of Blue Licks in 1782. Blue Lick was one of the last battles of the Revolutionary War, coming after Lord Cornwallis surrendered to Washington in October of 1781.
July 27: José Celso Barbosa Day in Puerto Rico
Erwin Rommel and aides
- 1054 – Siward, Earl of Northumbria, led an invasion of Scotland and defeated Macbeth, King of Scotland, in a battle north of the Firth of Forth.
- 1778 – Anglo-French War: French and British fleets fought to a standoff west of Ushant, which led to political disputes in both countries.
- 1942 – Second World War: Allied forces halted the Axis invasion of Egypt (Erwin Rommel pictured with aides).
- 1990 – Members of Jamaat al Muslimeen attempted to overthrow the government of Trinidad and Tobago by taking hostages at the Red House including Prime Minister A. N. R. Robinson, before surrendering six days later.
- 2007 – While covering a police pursuit in Phoenix, Arizona, U.S., two news helicopters collided in mid-air, killing both crews.
Jeanne Baré (b. 1740) · Hannah Primrose, Countess of Rosebery (b. 1851) · Elizabeth Rona (d. 1981)
Strike an enemy once and for all. Let him cease to exist as a tribe or he will live to fly in your throat again.
— Shaka, 19th century Zulu king
"High ideas were besmirched by cruelty and greed, enterprise and endurance by a blind and narrow self righteousness, and the Holy War itself was nothing more than a long act of intolerance in the name of God, which is a sin against the Holy Ghost."
— Steven Runciman