The arts is a vast subdivision of culture, composed of many creative endeavors and disciplines. It is a broader term than "art", which, as a description of a field, usually means only the visual arts. The arts encompass the visual arts, the literary arts and the performing arts – music, theatre, dance and film, among others. This list is by no means comprehensive, but only meant to introduce the concept of the arts. For all intents and purposes, the history of the arts begins with the history of art. The arts might have origins in early human evolutionary prehistory.
Ancient Greek art saw the veneration of the animal form and the development of equivalent skills to show musculature, poise, beauty and anatomically correct proportions. Ancient Roman art depicted gods as idealized humans, shown with characteristic distinguishing features (e.g. Jupiter's thunderbolt). In Byzantine and Gothic art of the Middle Ages, the dominance of the church insisted on the expression of biblical and not material truths. Eastern art has generally worked in a style akin to Western medieval art, namely a concentration on surface patterning and local colour (meaning the plain colour of an object, such as basic red for a red robe, rather than the modulations of that colour brought about by light, shade and reflection). A characteristic of this style is that the local colour is often defined by an outline (a contemporary equivalent is the cartoon). This is evident in, for example, the art of India, Tibet and Japan. Religious Islamic art forbids iconography, and expresses religious ideas through geometry instead. The physical and rational certainties depicted by the 19th-century Enlightenment were shattered not only by new discoveries of relativity by Einstein and of unseen psychology by Freud, but also by unprecedented technological development. Paradoxically the expressions of new technologies were greatly influenced by the ancient tribal arts of Africa and Oceania, through the works of Paul Gauguin and the Post-Impressionists, Pablo Picasso and the Cubists, as well as the Futurists and others.
L'ange de Nisida
(The Angel of Nisida
) is an opera semiseria
in four acts by Italian composer Gaetano Donizetti (pictured)
, from a libretto
by Alphonse Royer
and Gustave Vaëz. Parts of the libretto are considered analogous with the libretto for Giovanni Pacini's Adelaide e Comingio
, and the final scene is based on the François-Thomas-Marie de Baculard d'Arnaud
play Les Amants malheureux, ou le comte de Comminges
. Donizetti worked on the opera in the autumn of 1839—its final page is dated 27 December 1839. Because the subject matter involved the mistress of a Neapolitan
king, and may thus have caused difficulties with the Italian censors, Donizetti decided that the opera should be presented in France. However, the theater company Donizetti contracted went bankrupt. L'ange
was never performed and was reworked as La favorite
in September 1840.
The poilu's holiday December 25 and 26, 1915, a French World War I poster depicting a poilu's Christmas leave from the war. "Poilu", literally meaning "hairy one", is a nickname for French infantrymen. The word carries the sense of the infantryman's typically rural, agricultural background. Beards and bushy moustaches were often worn. The image of the dogged, bearded French soldier was widely used in propaganda and war memorials.
- 6 July 1845 – Soprano Ángela Peralta, a leading figure in the operatic life of 19th century Mexico, is born in Mexico City
- 11 July 1561 – Spanish lyric poet Luis de Góngora, the author of La Fábula de Polifemo y Galatea, is born in Córdoba
- 14 July 1910 – The influential French ballet master and choreographer Marius Petipa dies in the Crimean resort of Gurzuf at the age of 92
- 25 July 1723 – Herr, gehe nicht ins Gericht mit deinem Knecht (Lord, do not pass judgment on Your servant), a sacred cantata composed by Johan Sebastian Bach, is performed for the first time
- 27 July 1946 – Gertrude Stein (pictured), American writer, poet and art collector dies in Neuilly-sur-Seine at the age of 72
was a British artist
. Born into a poor mining family in the Yorkshire
town of Castleford
, he became well-known for his large-scale abstract
cast bronze and carved marble sculptures; substantially supported by the British art establishment, Moore helped to introduce a particular form of modernism
into Britain. His ability to satisfy large-scale commissions
made him exceptionally wealthy towards the end of his life. However, he lived frugally and most of his wealth went to endow the Henry Moore Foundation
, which continues to support education and promotion of the arts. His signature form is a pierced reclining figure, first influenced by a Toltec
sculpture known as "Chac Mool
", which he had seen as a plaster cast
. Early versions are pierced conventionally as a bent arm reconnects with the body. Later, more abstract versions, are pierced directly through the body in order to explore the concave and convex shapes. These more extreme piercings developed in parallel with Barbara Hepworth
's sculptures. Hepworth first pierced a torso after misreading a review of one of Henry Moore's early shows.
- Parent project
- Descendant projects