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1877 ( was a MDCCCLXXVII) common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday ( dominical letter B) of the Julian calendar, the 1877th year of the Common Era (CE) and (AD) designations, the 877th year of the Anno Domini 2nd millennium, the 77th year of the 19th century, and the 8th year of the 1870s decade. As of the start of 1877, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
January–March [ edit ]
April–June [ edit ]
April 10 – The first human cannonball act in the British Isles, and perhaps the world, is performed by 14-year-old Rossa Matilda Richter ("Zazel") at the London Royal Aquarium. 
April 24 – Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire.
May 5 – American Indian Wars: Sitting Bull leads his band of Lakota into Canada to avoid harassment by the United States Army under Colonel Nelson Miles.
May 6 – Realizing that his people are weakened by cold and hunger, Chief Crazy Horse of the Oglala Sioux surrenders to United States troops in Nebraska.
May 8– 11 – At Gilmore's Gardens in New York City, the first Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show is held.
May 9 (May 10 0:59 UTC) – Iquique earthquake and tsunami: An earthquake of at least magnitude 8.5 M occurs on the west coast of South America, killing 2,541 around the s Pacific Rim.
May 16 – The 16 May 1877 crisis occurs in France.
May 21 (May 9 O.S.) – By a speech in the Parliament of Romania by Mihail Kogălniceanu, the country declares itself independent from the Ottoman Empire (recognized in 1878 after the end of the Romanian independence war).
June 15 – Henry Ossian Flipper becomes the first African American cadet to graduate from the United States Military Academy.
June 17 – American Indian Wars – Battle of White Bird Canyon: The Nez Perce defeat the U.S. Cavalry at White Bird Canyon in the Idaho Territory.
June 20 – Alexander Graham Bell installs the world's first commercial telephone service in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
June 21 – The Molly Maguires are hanged at Carbon County Prison in Mauch Chunk, Pennsylvania.
June 26 – The eruption of the volcano Cotopaxi in Ecuador causes severe mudflows that wipe out surrounding cities and valleys, killing 1,000.
June 30 – The British Mediterranean fleet is sent to Besika Bay.
July–September [ edit ]
July – Conclusion of serial publication of
Leo Tolstoy's in Anna Karenina . The Russian Messenger 
July 9 – The All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club begins its first lawn tennis tournament at Wimbledon.
July 16 – Great Railroad Strike of 1877: Riots by Baltimore and Ohio Railroad railroad workers in Baltimore lead to a sympathy strike and rioting in Pittsburgh, and a full-scale worker's rebellion in St. Louis, briefly establishing a Communist government before U.S. President Rutherford B. Hayes calls in the armed forces. 
July 19 – Russo-Turkish War: The first battle in the Siege of Plevna is fought.
July 30 – The second battle in the Siege of Plevna is fought.
July 30 – Russo-Turkish War: The Turkish army and its allies destroy the Bulgarian city of Stara Zagora and massacre the inhabitants.
August 9 – American Indian Wars – Battle of the Big Hole: Near Big Hole River in Montana, a small band of Nez Perce people who refuse government orders to move to a reservation, clash with the United States Army. The army loses 29 soldiers and the Indians lose 89 warriors in an Army victory.
August 12 – American astronomer Asaph Hall discovers Deimos, the outer moon of Mars.
August 18 – Asaph Hall discovers Phobos, the inner moon of Mars.
September 1 – The Battle of Lovcha, third battle in the Siege of Plevna, is fought. Russian forces successfully reduce the Ottoman fortress at Lovcha.
September 5 – American Indian Wars: Oglala Sioux chief Crazy Horse is bayoneted by a United States soldier, after resisting confinement in a guardhouse at Fort Robinson in Nebraska.
September 22 – Treaty 7 is concluded between several mainly Blackfoot First Nations tribes and the Canadian Confederation at the Blackfoot Crossing of the Bow River, settling the Blackfoot on Indian reserves in what will become southern Alberta.
September 24 – Battle of Shiroyama in Kagoshima, Japan: The Imperial Japanese Army annihilates heavily outnumbered rebel under samurai Saigō Takamori (who is killed), ending the Satsuma Rebellion.
October–December [ edit ]
January–June [ edit ]
January 2 – Slava Raškaj, Croatian painter (d. 1906)
January 3 – Josephine Hull, American actress (d. 1957)
January 22 – Hjalmar Schacht, German economist, politician and banker (d. 1970)
January 26 – Kees van Dongen, Dutch-French painter (d. 1968)
February 4 – Eddie Cochems, Father of the forward pass in American football (d. 1953)
February 12 – Louis Renault, French industrialist, founder of Renault (d. 1944)
February 14 – Edmund Landau, German mathematician (d. 1938)
February 19 – Gabriele Münter, German painter (d. 1962)
February 25 – Erich von Hornbostel, Austrian musicologist (d. 1935)
March 2 – Consuelo Vanderbilt, Duchess of Marlborough (d. 1964)
March 9 – Albert Leo Stevens, pioneering American balloonist (d. 1944)
March 12 – Wilhelm Frick, German Nazi politician (d. 1946)
March 16 – Reza Shah Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (d. 1944)
March 18 – Edgar Cayce, American psychic (d. 1945)
March 21 – Maurice Farman, French pilot and aircraft designer (d. 1964)
March 25 – Walter Little, Canadian politician (d. 1961)
March 29 – Alois Kayser, German missionary (d. 1944)
April 15 – Georg Kolbe, German sculptor (d. 1947)
April 17 – Lionel Pape, English actor (d. 1944)
April 23 – Charles D. Herron, general in the United States Army (d. 1977)
April 30 – Alice B. Toklas, American writer (d. 1967)
May 3 – Karl Abraham, German psychoanalyst (d. 1925)
May 5 – Halfdan Egedius, Norwegian painter and illustrator (d. 1899)
May 23 – Grace Ingalls, youngest sister of author Laura Ingalls Wilder (d. 1941)
May 24 – Samuel W. Bryant, American admiral (d. 1938)
May 27 – Isadora Duncan, American dancer (d. 1927)
June 4 – Heinrich Otto Wieland, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1957)
June 7 – Charles Glover Barkla, English physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1944)
June 11 – Renée Vivien, British poet who wrote in French (d. 1909)
June 12 – Thomas C. Hart, American admiral and politician (d. 1971)
June 14 – Jane Bathori, French opera singer (d. 1970)
June 19 – Charles Coburn, American actor (d. 1961)
July–December [ edit ]
July 6 – Arnaud Massy, French golfer (d. 1950)
July 13 – Erik Scavenius, Prime Minister of Denmark (d. 1962)
July 17 – Ernst von Dohnányi, Hungarian conductor (d. 1960)
August 6 – Wallace H. White, Jr., U.S. Senator from Maine (d. 1952)
August 7 – Ulrich Salchow, Swedish figure skater (d. 1949)
August 15 – Stanley Vestal, American writer, poet, historian (d. 1957)
August 16 – Roque Ruaño, Spanish priest-civil engineer (d. 1935)
August 22 – Ananda Coomaraswamy, philosopher (d. 1947)
August 29 – Dudley Pound, British admiral (d. 1943)
September 2 – Frederick Soddy, English chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1956)
September 6 – Buddy Bolden, American jazz musician (d. 1930)
October 4 – Razor Smith, English cricketer (d. 1946)
October 10 – William Morris, 1st Viscount Nuffield, British businessman and philanthropist (d. 1963)
October 15 – Helen Ware, American stage & film actress (d. 1939)
October 21 – Oswald Avery, Canadian-American physician and medical researcher (d. 1955)
October 22 – Frederick Twort, English bacteriologist (d. 1950)
October 24 – Ernst Mielck, Finnish composer (d. 1899)
October 27 – George Thompson, English cricketer (d. 1943)
October 29 – Narcisa de Leon, Filipino film mogul (d. 1966)
October 30 – Hugo Celmiņš, 2-Time Prime Minister of Latvia (d. 1941)
November 1 – Else Ury, German writer and children's book author (d. 1943)
November 2 – Claire McDowell, American silent film actress (d. 1966)
November 3 – Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, 2-Time President of Chile (d. 1960)
November 15 – William Hope Hodgson, English author (d. 1918)
November 17 – Frank Lahm, Brigadier General USAF, airship pilot, early military aviator trained by the Wright brothers (d. 1963)
December 3 – Richard Pearse, New Zealand airplane pioneer (d. 1953)
December 24 – Sigrid Schauman, Finnish painter (d. 1979)
January–June [ edit ]
January 2 – Alexander Bain, Scottish inventor (b. 1811)
January 4 – Cornelius Vanderbilt, American entrepreneur (b. 1794)
January 20 – Dato Maharajalela Lela, Malay nationalist.
February 20 – Louis M. Goldsborough, United States Navy admiral (b. 1805)
March 1 – Antoni Patek, Polish watchmaker (b. 1811)
March 24 – Walter Bagehot, British businessman, essayist and journalist (b. 1826)
May 26 – Kido Takayoshi, Japanese statesman (b. 1833)
June 3 – Ludwig Ritter von Köchel, Austrian musicologist (b. 1800)
June 17 – John Stevens Cabot Abbott, American historian, pastor, and pedagogical writer (b. 1805)
June 22 – John R. Goldsborough, U.S. Navy commodore (b. 1809)
July–December [ edit ]
July 16 – Samuel McLean, American congressman (b. 1826)
July 27 – John Frost, British Chartist leader (b. 1784)
August 8 – William Lovett, British Chartist leader (b. 1800)
August 29 – Brigham Young, American Mormon leader (b. 1801)
August 30 – Raphael Semmes, American and Confederate naval officer (b. 1809)
September 2 – Constantine Kanaris, Greek politician (b. 1795)
September 3 – Adolphe Thiers, French historian and politician (b. 1797)
September 5 – Crazy Horse, American Oglala Lakota chief (b. 1840-45)
September 12 – Emily Pepys, English child diarist (b. 1833)
September 17 – William Fox Talbot, English photographer (b. 1800)
September 24 – Saigō Takamori, Japanese samurai (b. 1828)
October 3 – James Roosevelt Bayley, first Roman Catholic Bishop of Newark, New Jersey, and the eighth Archbishop of Baltimore (b. 1814)
October 10 – Johann Georg Baiter, Swiss philologist and textual critic (b. 1801)
October 16 – Théodore Barrière, French dramatist (b. 1823)
October 28 – Julia Kavanagh, Irish novelist (b. 1824)
October 29 – Nathan Bedford Forrest, American Confederate Civil War General, first Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan (b. 1821)
November 2 – Friedrich Graf von Wrangel, Prussian field marshal (b. 1784)
December 12 – José de Alencar, Brazilian novelist (b. 1829)
December 29 – Angelica Singleton Van Buren, Acting First Lady of the United States (b. 1818)
December 31 – Gustave Courbet, French painter (b. 1819)
References [ edit ]
^ Mounsey, Augustus H. (1879). The Satsuma Rebellion: An Episode of Modern Japanese History. London: John Murray.
^ Pierre Crabitès, Gordon: The Sudan and Slavery (Routledge, 2016)
^ . The Guinness Book of Records
^ Everett, Jason M., ed. (2006). "1877". The People's Chronology. Thomson Gale. Archived from the original on May 27, 2007 . Retrieved . 2007-05-26
^ ja:東京大学#沿革#略歴 (Japanese language) Retrieved date on May 17, 2017.
^ Stenbock-Fermor, Elizabeth (1975). The Architecture of Anna Karenina. B.R. Grüner. ISBN 1588116751.
^ Bruce, Robert V. (1959). 1877: Year of Violence. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
^ Hanssen, Jens-Morten (2001-08-10). "Facts about Pillars of Society". Ibsen.net . Retrieved . 2013-02-08
Further reading and year books [ edit ]
highly detailed coverage of "Political, Military, and Ecclesiastical Affairs; Public Documents; Biography, Statistics, Commerce, Finance, Literature, Science, Agriculture, and Mechanical Industry" for year 1877; massive compilation of facts and primary documents; worldwide coverage; 827 pp 1877 Annual Cyclopedia (1878)
Bellesiles, Michael A. (2010). 1877: America's Year of Living Violently. New York: New Press. ISBN 9781595584410.